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半總統制的崩潰、延續與轉型:威瑪共和與芬蘭的憲政比較
The Breakdown, Survival and Transformation of Semi-Presidentialism a Comparative Research between the Weimar Republic and Finland
沈有忠(Yu-Chung Shen)
49卷3期(2010/06/01)

受到越來越多新興民主國家制訂半總統制憲法的影響,對於半總統制的相關研究也越來越受到重視。依照學界對半總統制的定義,威瑪共和與芬蘭都在 1919 年設計出符合半總統制內涵的憲法,可說是當代最早的兩個半總統制的個案。這兩個國家的憲政運作卻有完全相反的結果:威瑪在 1933 年崩潰,而芬蘭先是渡過經濟危機,更在 80 年代逐漸往議會制轉型。本文擬就制度與非制度因素的互動,討論這兩個個案運作的迥異結果。本文將從憲法理論做比較的出發點,分析兩種不同理論基礎的半總統制憲..

As democratization spread in Eastern and Central Europe over the last two decades, Semi-Presidentialism has become a concept with more attention paid when discussing constitutional issues. By definition, the Weimar Republic and Finland were two of the initial experiments of semi- presidentialism. However, the constitutional practices in the Weimar Republic and Finland are worlds apart. Both semi-presidential, the Weimar Republic had broken down but Finland became a quasi-parliamentary democracy. This paper intends on discussi..

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