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和平利用核能之國際造法趨勢─IAEA核燃料循環多邊化倡議的實踐與影響
International Law-Making Trends on Peaceful Usage of Nuclear Energy-Practice and Influence of IAEA Multilateral Nuclear Fuel Cycle Advocacy
曾雅真(Yea-Jen Tseng)
即將出版 下載檔案
51卷2期(2012/06/01)

國際原子能總署(IAEA)所倡議之核燃料多邊化方案,試圖透過多邊化機制,設立 IAEA 核燃料銀行,集中全球核燃料的生產、供應與銷售,從而避免各國在製造和平使用目的核燃料的保護傘下,研發並製作核武級原料,增加核武擴散之風險。IAEA 核燃料循環多邊化倡議之發展,涉及一國能否取得民用核燃料之供應保證,擁有核濃縮與再處理權利,以及擁有再處理技術會否遭遇國際制約的問題。該等倡議一旦成形,即可能開啟核條約課予第三國義務之濫觴,並衝擊 NPT 締約國和平使用核能之權益。核燃料供應保證原則,會否成為一種類國際強制法之不可違逆原則,並且由其衍生之各項實踐的內容,會否形成習慣國際法效力,對核不擴散制度的運作內涵與法理實踐,產生重塑的效果,是國際核能造法過程中,值得投以密切關注的重大課題。本文擬在現有國際原始文獻的基礎上,觀察國際核能造法趨勢,並檢視國際核燃料循環多邊化倡議的演變意涵暨其對主權國家的相關權利義務,可能造成的衝擊。

 

The nuclear fuel multilateral program promoted by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) attempts to use multilateral mechanisms to establish the IAEA Nuclear Fuel Bank, in order to concentrate the worldwide production, supply and sale of nuclear fuel. The purpose of the program is to prevent countries from, under the guise of producing nuclear fuel for peaceful aims, to research, develop and manufacture weapon-grade nuclear raw materials, which increases the risk of nuclear proliferation. The development of IAEA multilateral nuclear fuel cycle proposals involve 1) whether a country can obtain assurance for the supply of nuclear fuel and have nuclear condensation and reprocessing rights, and 2) whether the possession of reprocessing technology will encounter problems from international law. If the proposals become effective, it may cause nuclear agreements to be placed upon third countries, which could impact the right of peaceful nuclear energy usage for Non-proliferation Treaty (NPT) countries. Whether nuclear fuel supply assurance principles will become a type of inviolable principle in quasi-international enforced law, and whether the derived practices will form the efficacy of common international law, causing a remolding effect on the operational content and legal practice of anti-proliferation systems, are important issues that deserve close attention in the process of international nuclear energy law-making. This paper observes the trends in international nuclear energy law-making with the use of existing international literature, and evaluates the evolution of the international multilateral nuclear fuel cycle, as well as the possible impact it may bring to the related rights and obligations of sovereign countries.

 

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