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英國脫歐議題及其對歐洲統合的意涵
Brexit and Its Implications for European Integration
羅至美(Chih-Mei Luo)
即將出版 下載檔案
57卷3期(2018/09/01)

在歐盟慶祝羅馬條約 60 週年前夕,歐洲統合面臨了英國公民投票決定脫離歐盟的震撼。英國脫歐究竟對歐洲統合產生何種意涵?是歐盟內部一持續爭辯中的議題。本文的目的在回答以下的研究問題:英國脫歐對歐洲統合產生何種意涵?公投出現脫歐的結果對歐盟傳遞出何種訊息?歐盟領袖是否正確解讀了這些訊息與意涵並給予正確的政策回應?經檢視對立性的論點之後,本文認為在公投中所顯示出的多項特質──不同社經階級所呈現出對立性的分裂投票-凸顯了必須正視經濟不公與分配不正義的急迫性與必要性。 這些問題係導因於歐盟長久以來治理中的結構性缺陷,而在歐債危機的不當管理後更行惡化。當歐盟領袖仍陷於要以「更多還是更少的歐洲」作為對英國脫歐回應的爭論時,歐盟可能仍以應付過關方式處理英國脫歐的衝擊,而再次強化民眾對歐盟無能的領導與錯誤經濟治理的負面認知。不論歐盟未來將朝向哪一種願景發展,一個「社會的歐洲」以調和「經濟的歐洲」使後者能更為內聚與公平是必要的,以使歐洲統合能持續向前推進與維繫「政治的歐洲」能永續發展。

 

On the eve of the 60th anniversary of the signing of the Rome Treaty, European integration had suffered a setback with the U.K.’s decision to withdraw from the EU(Brexit). The implications for European integration are heavily contended in EU politics, but these are far from clear and will require further investigation. This paper attempts to explore the implications of Brexit for European integration. What messages does the U.K. referendum have for the EU? Have EU leaders interpreted these messages and implications and initiated appropriate policy responses? After examining competing interpretations, this paper argues that patterns in voting behavior, showing sharp divisions between different socio-economic classes, highlight the imperative of addressing economic inequalities and distributive injustice, which have been rooted in structural flaws in EU governance and aggravated following the mismanagement of the Euro crisis. While EU leaders have been mired in disputes over ‘more or less Europe,’ the EU has had to muddle through the impacts of Brexit. All this has re-confirmed perceptions of the EU’s inept leadership and economic mismanagement. Whatever future awaits the EU, a ‘social Europe’ that reconciles an ‘economic Europe’ and is more inclusive and fairer is required to move European integration forward and to keep the concept of a ‘political Europe’ sustainable.

 

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