Russia is a federation which, as of March 1, 2008, consists of 83 federal subjects(members of the Federation). One of the extremely important theoretical and practical issues during the process of political transition in Russia’s modern history is the establishment and development of Russian federalism. The results of economic, social and political reform in the Russian society largely depend on the smooth development of federalism. In fact, the whole fate of Russia also depends on the development of Russian federalism. Therefore, this paper attempts to clarify two crucial problems, firstly, in Yeltsin’s Regime, the sovereignty of federal subjects was over- expanded, while Putin can withdraw these powers from the federal subjects without serious struggles and conflicts. Secondly, what are the decisive factors for centralization? And how can the decisive factors affect the stage of power struggles between the central government and the federal subjects?
Thus, this paper tries to handle two main issues. One is to conduct a theoretical model of Russian federalism with the concepts of marginal cost- benefit. The other is to discuss the applicability of this constructed model on the Russian federal system. By observing the whole process of the Russian federal system from this model, this paper finds that the economic development and the legitimacy of the federal government will directly affect the will and strategy of the federal subjects against the federal government for demanding the practical action of decentralization. Relatively, the federal government will reinforce the control of the legislation of centralization and downsize the power of federal subjects, in accompanying with the rapid economic growth and the promotion of the legitimacy of the federal government. This is perfectly workable in Putin’s Regime. With the promising economic performance, the federal government enhanced the operation of legitimacy that is consequently helpful to hold the control of the whole federation.
阿拉伯之春是於 2010 年年底，由突尼西亞開始發生一連串位於包括中東與北非地區的國內政治動盪事件。多數人認為，這與當地的威權政治，以及經濟發展遲緩有高度相關，因此，本文首先探討中東北非地區內戰可能的發生原因，包括經常被提及的政治與經濟因素，另外再輔以中東北非地區特殊的區域環境解釋，包括了此區特有的豐富天然資源，以及造成此次阿拉伯革命的連鎖反應。作者發現，經濟發展非常顯著地影響著內部衝突發生的機率，包括良好的發展以及開放的貿易政策，而民主與衝突則顯示「倒 U..
Since the Arab Spring occurred in the end of 2010, Middle East and North Africa(MENA)regions have drawn attentions from international society because of turbulent domestic events. Some nations in this area have leaders who stay in office for a very long time(e.g. Libya and Egypt), and some nations suffer from slow economic development(e.g. Algeria). Therefore, this study tries to review the previous studies on the civil war, focusing on political and economic determinants, to examine if political institution and economic deve..
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