After World War II, with the complexity of international affairs, cross border economic activities, new technology and the internet contributed to the increase of human interaction. This also increases the interdependence between countries, as well as the changes in international relationships made the borders among countries more and more vague. The rise of Non- Government Organizations (NGOs) indicated that the concept of “nations as the main player in international affairs” is being challenged. NGOs gradually took over government roles in international affairs as nations faded away in international governance. Therefore, international assistance programs work best when the government and NGOs work in partnerships. This would double the effectiveness as opposed to either one party working alone.
Studies have found that, early ODA (official development assistance) model centers around the government, the concept of assistance is different, and the interaction is not ideal. With the need of assistance and policy changes, NGO is frequently more involved in the ODA, as well as is complementary with the government on ODA issues. NGO participation in ODA will reduce public doubt on government role and raise the legitimacy of ODA. Therefore, the role of NGO in ODA has a rising importance. However, due to macro national interest, Japanese NGO is only able to play an intermediary role, instead of an executive and/or partnership role.
在各種跨國公民社會的組織活動.跨國議題倡議網絡 ( transnational advocacy network, TAN )是近年來常見、且最為學界所知的組織形態。TAN乃源於民間，由民間人士基於主動的認知與共同的理念，結合各界力量所形成的跨國壓力團體。近年 TAN 作法推陳出新，且發展出有別與以往的跨國認證網絡。
The theory of transnational advocacy network, developed by Keck and Sikknink in 1998 has been one of the most in-depth and systematic concepts providing insights to the myths of transnational civil societies. The TAN theory depicts how the TAN, originated and led by civil groups, attracts supporters across border lines to collectively pressurize certain target government against improper policies or behaviours. The introduction of the TAN theory has been enormously influential within the transnational level of analysis in IR studies, formin..
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