After World War II, with the complexity of international affairs, cross border economic activities, new technology and the internet contributed to the increase of human interaction. This also increases the interdependence between countries, as well as the changes in international relationships made the borders among countries more and more vague. The rise of Non- Government Organizations (NGOs) indicated that the concept of “nations as the main player in international affairs” is being challenged. NGOs gradually took over government roles in international affairs as nations faded away in international governance. Therefore, international assistance programs work best when the government and NGOs work in partnerships. This would double the effectiveness as opposed to either one party working alone.
Studies have found that, early ODA (official development assistance) model centers around the government, the concept of assistance is different, and the interaction is not ideal. With the need of assistance and policy changes, NGO is frequently more involved in the ODA, as well as is complementary with the government on ODA issues. NGO participation in ODA will reduce public doubt on government role and raise the legitimacy of ODA. Therefore, the role of NGO in ODA has a rising importance. However, due to macro national interest, Japanese NGO is only able to play an intermediary role, instead of an executive and/or partnership role.
臺灣是事實上的(de facto)獨立國家，然而其法理上的(de jure)獨立地位在中國打壓之下並不被國際廣泛承認。長久以來，臺灣藉由援助邦交國來換取外交承認，形成「建交導向」的援外政策;然而過去十多年來，在論述上、制度上和實踐上出現一系列改革，呼應美歐澳日等理念相近國家的價值，也就是經濟合作發展組織(Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development)的國際援助典則。本文主張這是從「建交導向」延伸..
Taiwan is a de facto independent country, but its de jure independence status is not widely recognized by the international society under the suppression of China. In the past, Taiwan used aid to exchange diplomatic recognition from its aid recipient countries, forming an “aid for diplomacy” aid policy. However, since the late 2000s, Taiwan’s aid policy has undergone a series of reforms regarding discourses, legal frameworks, and practices. Such reform applied the international aid regime established by like..
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