The dispute settlement system, often considered as the “crown jewel” of the WTO, is in a present crisis and becomes the crown of thorns. Over the past years, the United States through the use of the WTO’s consensus requirements has successfully blocked the launch of a process to select the Appellate Body members. This is carried forward by the Trump administration. With a Settlement of Disputes Understanding (DSU) requirement that appeals be heard by three AB members, with the AB membership down to zero at the present time, the Appellate Body ceased to operate in December 10, 2019. The U.S. Administration makes clear that the U.S. long-standing concerns involve systemic, substantive and procedural issues. However, many WTO members have been pressing for the filling of Appellate Body vacancies first and addressing U.S. concerns over time. Without the Appellate Body, the dispute settlement system loses much of its effectiveness and credibility since the core objective of the system is to “provide security and predictability to the multilateral trading system” as stipulated in Article 3.2 of the DSU. The collapse of the Appellate Body may indicate that the rule-based multilateral trading system will be in peril. In view of the importance of the Appellate Body, this article looks into the reasons for the U.S. blockade and the nature of its concerns. This article also explores the proposals put forward by the European Union and the options available to overcome the impasse.
在新回合農業談判中，現有糧食援助規範是否會產生商業排擠與間接出口補貼效果引起許多爭論。本文由《過剩處理與諮商義務之原則》出發，探討其與 WTO 談判之關連性，並剖析對我國的影響與因應之道。本文發現未來 WTO 對於糧食援助之要求將轉趨嚴格，我國的「糧食人道援外作業要點」原則上雖符合 WTO 未來新規範之方向，但在規範的陳述與對糧援類型的定義上仍略有差異。為了確保我國糧食援外工作得以持續推展，我國必須在談判中爭取實物糧援於非緊急情況時得以實施，以及糧援需求評估..
During the WTO Doha Round agricultural negotiations, there are many debates about whether the existing food aid rules are responsible for creating commercial displacement and indirect export subsidy effects. This study begins with investigating the relationship between the “Principles of Surplus Disposal and Consultative Obligations” and the WTO negotiations, followed by exploring the implications of new WTO disciplines on Taiwan’s food aid policies. We find that the negotiation is working toward more effect..
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