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城市能源轉型與治理實踐:以德國弗萊堡市為例
Urban Energy Transition and Governance Practice: The Case of Freiburg
李宜卿(Yi-Ching Lee)
即將出版 下載檔案
58卷4期(2019/12/01)

氣候變遷與能源安全揭示了新一波能源轉型的重要性。在此背景下, 城市作為全球經濟體系的生產、技術與能源消費的中心,其重要性持續提 升。面對氣候與能源轉型議題,城市在何種程度上可以發展出有別於更高 層級(國家、全球)的治理策略,成為學界與政策實務關切的重要課題。

本文以德國弗萊堡市推動能源轉型經驗為例,聚焦於以下討論:城市 或地方層級如何實踐能源轉型歷程?當中發展出哪些地方性的治理活動? 以下本文將先回顧能源轉型與氣候治理相關文獻,以及近年對於能源民主 概念的討論,來梳理出城市能源治理的重要面向。其次,本文在介紹德國 能源轉型的背景概況後,將以弗萊堡市為例,檢視城市於能源轉型歷程中 的治理策略。接著,本文將回顧弗萊堡市能源治理經驗,凸顯城市具體回 應能源轉型趨勢,與透過地方能源自主帶動治理模式創新的重要性。

研究發現,弗萊堡市透過兩種途徑來推動城市能源轉型。一方面,市 政府作為管制者與規劃者、供給者與促進者,透過結合多種治理模式,在 引導城市能源轉型歷程上扮演重要角色;另方面,公民與能源合作社自主治理,投資地方再生能源計畫,凸顯出轉型歷程中的公眾參與,也是城市

能源轉型的重要力量。

 

Climate change and energy security highlight the significance of energy transition. As an important node of production, technology and energy consumption in the world, cities play an important role in the economic and social transformation towards sustainable energy. It has been widely acknowledged as one of the major issues that cities and local governments explore governing strategies different from the higher governance level (national, global)to achieve the energy transition.

This paper attempts to answer the following questions: How do the city and local levels implement the energy transition process? What are the major governing strategies during the implementation process in Freiburg, one of the green cities in Germany? Apart from reviewing the development of energy transition and local government system in Germany, this paper discusses the models and strategies of existing urban energy governance and self-governance of citizen energy in Freiburg.

The study finds that Freiburg introduces two approaches for urban energy transition. The municipality plays an essential role as regulator and planner, provider, facilitator, and combines different modes of governing to foster urban energy transition. In addition, the self-governance of citizens, energy cooperatives, and the investment at local- or community-based renewables highlight the public participation and their contribution to the transition process.

 

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