然而，當歐盟開始試探軍事政策合作與軍力提升的可能性，使得歐盟在傳統上強調的非軍事解決方式，有可能被軍事面向的發展予以平衡，如此的「軍事化」發展是否將弱化了歐盟具「公民」特質的國際身份認同? 本文首先將討論學界對於歐洲「公民強權」的爭辯，藉以瞭解此一概念的演進與不同的意涵; 其次，當「軍事」面向加入歐洲統合的進程，歐盟的「公民強權」身份是否受到威脅? 之後，本文探討對於歐盟「公民」面向在政策實務與理論研究兩方面發展的批判，以釐清「公民強權」概念在理論層次的適用性，以及歐盟身份認同的可能其他選項。
A half century of European intergration has had a profound effect on both policy practice and academic research in pursuing the distinctiveness of Europe's identity as a whole. In the process of finding an appropriate role based on its constructing identity, the EC/EU has shaped a distinct foreign policy and developed decisive normative power in world affairs. Along with the formation of foreign and security policy cooperation among EU member states, the academic circle has proposed the “civilian power” concept, referring to the construction of an international identity of the EU based upon the routine behavior model which is derived from the constant practice of actors at the union level solving international conflicts by non-military means.
However, the problem has arisen as to whether the “civilian” nature of the EU's identity has been undermined by its attempt to strengthen collective military power, by balancing its conventional non-military solutions with the development of military means. Therefore, the main purpose of this article is to examine whether the “civilian power” concept can represent Europe's special international identity when considering the change and developments of the EU's security and military policy integration. This article begins by discussing the academic debates on “civilian power” so as to understand the evolution and the varieties of the meanings of this concept. It is followed by a study into EU military integration and the implications for its international identity. This article also brings in critiques of the EU's “civilian” nature in order to clarify the applicability of the “civilian power” concept at the theoretic level as well as to identify alternatives, if any, to such an identity.
In conclusion, this article argues for the necessity of reviewing the contrasts between “civilian” and “military” dimensions and of broadening the concept of “civilian power” by involving the theory of the cosmopolitanism. Also, it advocates that discussing the meaning of “power”, we should further look into non-military factors. As a result, a broadened sense of “civilian power” can better define the global actorness of the EU based on its distinctive identity given the facts that the EU has spread the universal values and norms through the social and economic means of its foreign policy, along with its increasing dependence on military policy to solve those non-conventional problems.
As great power politics are regarded as trend setters in international relations(IR), most contemporary IR studies often neglected small states’ foreign behaviors. However, after the end of the Cold War, bipolar confrontation of great powers no longer existed, attentions began to turn to small states in the realm of international relations. The author argues that, with the help of proper design of methodological approach, the extent of small states’ external..
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