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保護水下文化遺產公約之政策工具研析暨其省思
Policy Tools and the CPUCH: The Analysis and Evaluation
徐胤承(Yin-Cheng Hsu)
即將出版 下載檔案
60卷2期(2021/06/01)
在聯合國教育科學文化組織《保護水下文化遺產公約》(Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage, CPUCH)之架構下,所謂 「保護」,意指現地保存(in situ),以及無法現地保存時之陸上保存。通說認為,現地保存意味著將水下文化遺產留置在海底,避免商業開發或其他非必要之干擾;此即以保護為旨趣之首要考量,僅於遭遇萬不得已之情況下,且經正當程序,認定確有打撈水下文化遺產之必要,方得捨棄現地保存選項,退而尋求其他妥適保存方法。揆諸CPUCH內容,其為達成現地保存之公共政策目標,隱含了政策工具中常見之資訊工具及規則工具,然卻未見經濟工具,誠為一憾。本文試從釋明現地保存乃執行水下文化遺產保護最適方案之緣由為開章,再評述CPUCH暨其關係條約內蘊之政策工具優缺點,最後提出關涉系爭議題,且國際上曾用於水下文化遺產返還之特殊案例為佐證,即一種附帶經濟工具效果之政府沉船豁免承認,繹其效果可謂立竿見影,不惟大幅降低尋寶者不法獲利,亦可能適用於未來絕大多數已知或未知之水下文物所有權爭執事件,職是應堪認係突破既往窠臼之創新思維與方向;爰秉獻曝之忱, 謹供識者參酌。

Within the framework of the UNESCO Convention for the Protection of Underwater Cultural Heritage (CPUCH), the first option for the protection of underwater cultural heritage (UCH) is ‘in situ preservation,” which means UCH ought to be left on the sea floor. Shipwreck recovery activities are necessary if and only if the competent authorities require them to happen. While multiple policy instruments are used to achieve the in situ preservation, economic instruments are rarely applied. This paper starts with a short paragraph about the importance of in situ preservation. Then, an analysis on the policy instruments behind the design of the CPUCH and other international treaties is presented. Finally, the paper presents a legal case study that explores the restitution practice at sea. Through the above points, the writer hopes that this article would generate help and understanding for future policies and for law makers.

 

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