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武裝衝突期間軍隊的文化資產保護角色及其實踐: 2003年伊拉克戰爭的影響
The Military’s Roles and Practices of Cultural Property Protection during Armed Conflicts: The Effects of the Iraq War (2003-2011)
郭雪真(Hsueh-Chen Kuo)
即將出版 下載檔案
59卷1期(2020/03/01)

武裝衝突期間軍隊保護人類文化資產的角色,國際人道法、國際人權法與國際刑法訂有相關的義務及規範,但此義務或法律規範具體的落實則是有賴於國際組織與強國(主要是美國)在不同的戰爭或武裝衝突期間的實際經驗。即使美國在2003年伊拉克戰爭前已經規劃保護當地文化資產的措施,軍隊及其盟軍仍遭致批評未能保護文化資產。後續2004年在科索沃戰爭期間未能保護東正教(Eastern Orthodox)修道院及防止種族屠殺之間的兩難、2005年在伊拉克薩馬拉(Samarra)歷史1200年的清真寺螺旋塔遭到毀壞,以及20142015年「伊斯蘭國」蓄意毀滅古文明文物等案例, 都呈現出聯合國、「北約組織」及歐美國家軍隊保護文化資產的關鍵角色,更促使其在伊拉克戰爭後強化文化資產保護的認知及能力,以及建立更完善的文化資產保護制度。本文第一部分略述國際法有關武裝衝突期間軍隊尊重與保護文化資產的規定,以理解軍隊的保護角色是國際法所賦予的責任與義務。第二部分說明2003年伊拉克戰爭前後美國建立的文化資產保護措施,以理解美軍在伊拉克戰爭前的文化資產保護準備工作,以及伊拉克國家博物館文物遭劫遭竊事件及其後續的影響。第三部分以2003年伊拉克國家博物館事件後的三個案例,論述軍隊保護文化資產的關鍵角色。 第四部分探討伊拉克戰爭後國際組織與歐美國家為強化軍隊保護文化資產的角色、認知與能力,建立相關政策與準則的措施。探索上述各項議題, 藉以展現軍隊在戰前的規劃、戰時的防制及戰後的懲治,其保護文化資產的重要角色。

 

This research tries to explore the evolution of international laws regarding the cultural property protection (CPP) during the event of armed conflict with armed forces having obligations to protect cultural property from Law of War, International Humanitarian Law, Law of International Human Rights and International Criminal Law. However, the international practices were based on the interactions of international politics and international laws have been played by great powers (particularly United States) in wars or armed conflicts. It is important to note that the American military and its alliance failed to protect cultural property during Iraq War (2003), despite the U.S. has planned to protect before the War began. Following the dilemma of Monastery of the Archangel (2004), the destruction of spiral Minaret al-Malwiya at Samarra (2005), and the mass destruction of Islamic State (2014-2015), it is needed to explore the critical roles of international organizations and militaries in CPP using these cases. Furthermore, to explore the reformations of CPP, related policies and doctrines of United Nations, NATO and Occidental States will be examined. This research is divided into four sections - the first section describes the evolution of international laws in relation to the the militarys roles in CPP to illustrate the empowered roles played by laws; the second section describes Americas planned CPP programs before and after the Iraq War (2003), in order to describe the CPP preparation done by Americans before the war and to show the influence of looting at the Iraq National Museum on CCP; the third section takes three cases following the Iraq War as examples for exploring the militarys critical roles in CCP; the fourth section explores the policy and doctrinal measures of CCP that was reformatted by international organizations(UN and NATO) and Occidental States after the War for strengthening the roles, awareness and capabilities of armed forces. All these issues will demonstrate the militarys critical roles of the CPP in planning, preventing and correcting cultural criminals of War.

 

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