在新回合農業談判中，現有糧食援助規範是否會產生商業排擠與間接出口補貼效果引起許多爭論。本文由《過剩處理與諮商義務之原則》出發，探討其與 WTO 談判之關連性，並剖析對我國的影響與因應之道。本文發現未來 WTO 對於糧食援助之要求將轉趨嚴格，我國的「糧食人道援外作業要點」原則上雖符合 WTO 未來新規範之方向，但在規範的陳述與對糧援類型的定義上仍略有差異。為了確保我國糧食援外工作得以持續推展，我國必須在談判中爭取實物糧援於非緊急情況時得以實施，以及糧援需求評估資料之透明化，並透過民間慈善團體之合作管道來提高援外工作的執行率。
During the WTO Doha Round agricultural negotiations, there are many debates about whether the existing food aid rules are responsible for creating commercial displacement and indirect export subsidy effects. This study begins with investigating the relationship between the “Principles of Surplus Disposal and Consultative Obligations” and the WTO negotiations, followed by exploring the implications of new WTO disciplines on Taiwan’s food aid policies. We find that the negotiation is working toward more effective disciplines on in-kind, monetization and re-exports. Although Taiwan’s food aid policy is fundamentally in accordance with the spirit of the new Round, a distinction between emergency and non-emergency food aid should be made. Proposals toward maintaining in-kind food aid during non-emergent cases and releasing demand assessment information are also needed to address the needs of the recipient countries. To increase the effectiveness and efficiency of food aid, Taiwan’s food agencies should devote more effort to co-operate with the international agencies and charity groups.
The dispute settlement system, often considered as the “crown jewel” of the WTO, is in a present crisis and becomes the crown of thorns. Over the past years, the United States through the use of the WTO’s consensus requirements has successfully blocked the launch of a process to select the Appellate Body members. This is carried forward by the Trump administration. With a Settlement of Disputes Understanding (DSU) requirement that appeals be heard by three AB members, with the AB membership down to zero at the present time..
歐盟於 1968 年成立一個糖共同行銷組織，在價格體系下，針對糖採取國內補貼與出口補貼。補貼額度超過歐盟 1995 年減讓承諾的補貼金額與出口數量，影響到澳洲、巴西與泰國糖的出口利益，而向 WTO 提起控訴。本案顯示補貼問題的複雜性，尤其很多國家透過國內補貼，而對出口產品實施交叉補貼，形成變相的出口補貼，這是本案的主要爭議。歐盟糖出口補貼被認定為違反 WTO 農業協定相關規定，因此影響到澳洲、巴西與泰國糖合法利益。本案對於歐盟糖體系的改革、WTO 杜哈發展議..
The European Union (EU) established a Common Organization for sugar in 1968, and accordingly applied subsidies to sugar under the price support system. However, the EU has been providing export subsidies in excess of its budgetary outlay and quantity commitment levels specified in the Schedule of 1995, thereby nullifying or impairing benefits expected to accrue to Australia, Brazil and Thailand under the Agreement on Agriculture. This case demonstrates the complexity of subsidies, in particular as more and more WTO members ap..
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