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國際會議決策制定的建構觀點: 以領海寬度的形成為例
A Constructive View on Decision Making of International Conferences: Taking the Width of Territorial Sea as an Example
郁瑞麟(Ruei-Lin Yu)
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59卷4期(2020/12/01)
「第三屆聯合國海洋法會議」係迄今為止,聯合國所召開時間最長且規模最大的一次國際立法會議,部分學者將此會議的成功,歸因於「包裹交易」或「大國政治」的折衝。本文援引社會學領域的相關討論,使用 「意義框架」取代溫特的「共享概念」,對國際關係領域中的國際會議決策制定提出分析架構與可操作的觀察指標。此分析架構中的意義框架與行 為體行為兩者互為因果,處於一種動態的建構關係,而「共同期待」係為兩者的中介,若符合期待,兩者便趨於穩定;反之,則面臨調整。本文透過自1930年「國際法編纂會議」到1982年「第三屆聯合國海洋法會議」的官方文件,歸納出國家主張、文本內容、議事規則與提案區分等可操作的觀察指標,認為若提案內容可符合當時國家主張與文本內容所蘊含的意義框架,且議事規則與提案區分能夠相互搭配,應可有效提升國際會議通過決策的機會。
 

The Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS III) might be the largest and longest international law codification conference thus far. Some scholars attribute the success of this conference to the “package deal” or “great power politics.” This paper adopts the view of constructivism and cites relevant discussions in the field of sociology and replaces Wendt’s “shared ideas” with “meaning framework” for proposing a new analysis framework with operational indicators for international conference decision making. In this analysis structure, the meaning framework and the actor’s behavior are mutually causal in a dynamic construction relationship, while the “shared expectations” are the intermediary of the two. If the shared expectations are met, the two will tend to be stable; if not, they will encounter adjustments. Using the official documents of the “1930 Conference on the Progressive Codification of International Law” to the “1982 Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea,” this article summarizes some observable indicators, such as state claims, text content, rules of procedure, and proposal distinctions, and argues that if the content of the proposal can match current meaning framework produced by state claims and documental textcontent, while also matches the rules of procedure to limited proposals, then the possibility of decision making at international conferences can rise.

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