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泰國政治安全的發展與困境
The Development and Dilemma of Thailand’s Political Security
陳尚懋(Shang-Mao Chen)
即將出版 下載檔案
54卷4期(2015/12/01)

人類安全的概念首次出現在聯合國開發計畫署(United Nations Development Programme, UNDP)1994 年出版的人類發展報告之中,自此 之後,人類安全與人類發展等概念廣為各國採用與學界討論。其中位於東南亞的泰國,於 1997 年遭受亞洲金融風暴的襲擊後,在泰皇蒲美蓬 (Bhumibol Adulyadej)的倡導之下,積極推動強調「以人民為主」(people- centered)的人類安全概念。雖然泰國在許多方面表現出對於人類安全的重視,但泰國從 2005 年開始出現「紅黃之爭」的政治動盪,對於民眾的日常生活與性命財產造成嚴重威脅。軍方更是於 2006 年與 2014 年兩度發動政變,接管行政與立法部門,並發布全國戒嚴令,人民的言論與集會結社自由被壓抑。司法部門也不斷介入政爭,數次做出對塔克辛(Thaksin Shinawatra)陣營不利的判決,發動「司法政變」(judicial coup)。這十餘年來的紅黃之爭、軍方介入政治與司法雙重標準都讓泰國陷入政治安全的困境之中。本文主要針對泰國這幾年來的政治安全困境進行分析,認為泰國從 1960 年開始推動以曼谷為核心(Bangkok-based)的國家經濟發展計畫,忽略曼谷以外地區的經濟發展需求,進而導致人類安全重要測量指標出現明顯的區域落差,長期以來形成曼谷中產階級與北部、東北部中下階級的對立,是造成泰國這幾年政治安全困境的主要原因。

 

The concept of human security first appeared in the United Nations Development Programme’s (UNDP) 1994 Human Development Report. According to the report, the scope of human security should be broadened to include seven issues: economic security, food security, health security, environment security, personal security, community security and political security. Since then, concepts of human security and human development are widely adopted and implemented by states and commonly discussed in the academic world. Thailand actively promotes the idea of human security and people-centered security concept since the 1997 Asian financial crisis. However, the political conflict between the red-shirt and the yellow-shirt in the past decade caused dilemmas of political security. This research paper aims to explore the current status of political insecurity in Thailand since the second half of 2005. We argue that Thailand was divided into the urban middle class in Bangkok and central Thailand and the rural poor from the North and Northeast of Thailand due to uneven regional economic development policies. The government adopted the five-year National Economic and Social Development Plan ( NESDP ) since 1961, which centered Bangkok in national economic development. The Bangkok-based development policy was the main factor of the division that resulted in the decade-long political turmoil, and consequently caused political insecurity in Thailand.

 

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