本研究探討 2003~2006 年期間，哈馬斯的政治轉型與其「抵抗方案」的關係。哈馬斯全名為「伊斯蘭抵抗運動」(Islamic resistance movement)，因過去在以色列境內，從事自殺炸彈活動，被西方國家列入恐怖組織名單。 2006 年 1 月 25 日巴勒斯坦舉行議會大選，出乎眾人意料，哈馬斯成為選舉最大贏家。許多學者認為哈馬斯在政治上的轉型並非偶然。例如 2003~2006 年期間，即使哈馬斯發動多起自殺炸彈攻擊，但受到外在與內在環境的改變，哈馬斯卻逐漸擱置原暴力路線，朝向巴勒斯坦之政治整合。然而，當前相關學術文獻似乎忽視哈馬斯的政治轉型與其抵抗方案密不可分。本研究耙梳 2003~2006 年期間，訪問哈馬斯領導階層的相關文獻，發現哈馬斯係依據其抵抗方案，作為其適應與回應外在環境的轉變與挑戰;而其政治轉型的關鍵因素來自於以色列的單邊撤離加薩方案。雖然哈馬斯抵抗方案未受到相關英文文獻的重視與探討，惟經本研究發現，對該抵抗方案的探討有助於理解哈馬斯思維，為何在進入巴勒斯坦政治整合的過程中，仍不願放棄武裝抵抗的原則。此外該抵抗方案亦可以解釋為何今日加薩遭以色列長期封鎖與轟炸的情況下，哈馬斯仍不願意承認以色列的合法性。
The aim of this paper is to examine Hamas’ political transformation by scrutinizing its resistance project between 2003 and 2006. Hamas is an acronym of the ‘Islamic resistance movement’, which was founded in 1987. Due to its past record of suicide bombings inside Israel, Hamas had, in the past, been viewed by some Western countries as a terrorist organization. However, since the Palestinian Legislative Council(PLC)election held in January 2006, Hamas unexpectedly had the capability of forming a government in its own right by winning the majority of votes. Many scholars believe that Hamas’ transformation is not accidental. In reality, Hamas had gradually changed its discourse from intensified armed struggles to political participations in the period from 2003 to 2006. This transformation was considered to be a response to changes in external and internal environment. The way that Hamas itself interprets the transition and its implications, is beyond the scope of existing scholarship. This paper argues that the ‘resistance project’ provided a mean by which Hamas adapted to a new environment. And the crucial factor for Hamas’ political transformation was highly related to the Israeli unilateral disengagement plan. This resistance discourse was prevalent in a large number of Hamas’ leaders’ interviews between 2003 and 2006, which could enable readers to understand further Hamas’ perspective on Israel and why it insisted on the necessity of armed resistance when it participated in the PLC election. Moreover, the resistance project could explain Hamas’ rationale for the denial of Israeli legitimacy even though Gaza has been seized and bombarded since 2006.
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