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韓國對華關係中的「中國情結」
Korea’s Chinese Complex and the Evolving Sino-Korean Relations
邵磊(Lei Shao)蘇翊豪(Yi-hao Su)
即將出版 下載檔案
58卷3期(2019/09/01)

本文藉由闡述韓國的中國情結因素如何影響對華關係,補充現有國際關係理論對於分析朝貢體制以及情義精神的不足。中國情結脫胎於傳統華夷秩序與朝貢關係中的事大主義,係韓國對於符合中華文明典範的中國政權之情感依託與效忠。然而不同於強調名份尊卑與實力差距的事大主義,中國情結重視中國統治者須具備儒家文明性與對外鋤強扶弱的精神,成為近現代韓國依從中國的重要根源。由於明帝國義無反顧地援助李氏朝鮮抵禦日本入侵,事大主義因而轉化為中國情結,使得朝鮮拒絕向文化低落的滿清低頭,直到滿清展現作為中國統治者應有的儒家形象和字小風範。同理,出於共同抗日的情感與記憶,在中華民國與中華人民共和國政權交替之際,甚至是後者取代前者在聯合國席位之後的二十餘年間,大韓民國同樣秉持中國情結,與中華民國維持邦交關係直到1992年。改革開放以後的 中國大陸,也逐漸成為韓國「中國情結」的投射對象。以往被認為與中國大陸關係疏遠的韓國保守黨派,近年也一度表現出親華舉動,這當中既有國家利益考慮,也不無中國情結的展露。而韓國進步黨派無論在歷史或是在當代,皆會較快接受中國新興勢力,因此在中國大陸看來,韓國進步黨派更為「親華」。當前的國際秩序是以美國為主導,作為韓國盟友的美國對韓國的政治、軍事等影響依然不可替代。不過在韓國制定對華政策時,除了以利益導向進行充分的理性考量後,感性的中國情結或多或少會起到某種程度的促進作用。

 

What is Chinese Complexand how does it affect Koreas foreign relations with China? We examine the effect of Chinese Complex by using the salient historical analogy between the Ming-Qing Dynasty and the Republic of China (R.O.C)-the Peoples Republic of China (P.R.C). We conceptualize Chinese Complex as the persistent emotional attachment to a legitimately civilized Chinese reign with Confucian ethical responsibility. The distinctive Sino-Korean tributary relation fostered the idea of China Complex and its forerunner, principle of Sadae, meaning serving the great.The principle of Sadae dictates how small countries adjust their foreign policy according to major powers for survival, whereas Chinese Complex implies spontaneous behaviors based on indebtedness from favors received from big countries. As a result of Chinese Complex, although it is advantageous to be allied with the newly established Chinese regime, Korea does not shift its allegiance until the incumbent Chinese ruler demonstrates a Sinicized orientation and a sense of brotherhood. The implication of Chinese Complex is that after perceiving the P.R.Cs growing legitimacy to rule, South Korea will seek a higher level of cooperation with the P.R.C.

 

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