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從「國家」到「個人」:人類安全概念之分析
From "State" to "People": In Light of Human Security
蔡育岱(Yu-Tai Ts'ai)譚偉恩(Wei-En Tan)
即將出版 下載檔案
47卷1期(2008/03/01)

人類安全概念提出以來至今已逾十年,始終沒有獲得安全研究領域的重視。冷戰結束後,雖有非傳統安全在研究上對傳統安全侷限於軍事問題的缺漏進行修補,但依舊忽略「個人」對於安全研究的價值。本文認為,目前既有的安全研究已不能迎合全球化時代國際關係的發展趨勢,而把「個人」排除在安全研究的討論之外或是予以邊緣化,則為一種理解上的疏失。實際上,無論傳統安全所強調的軍事領域,或是非傳統安全所關注的貧窮、發展、疾病等問題,其核心與基礎的安全價值均構築在每一個「個人」身上, 這歸因於安全概念就像一道不可分割的光譜,儘管歸結出許多不同面向,但當其中一個安全面向受到影響時,其他面向也會受到波及;互賴現象不只適用於經濟關係,也同樣適用安全領域。最後,本文藉由哥倫比亞內戰的案例,論證何以「人類安全」具備在判斷安全是否落實、因應全球化的國際局勢、回應「內部」威脅來源等三方面的優勢,用以彰顯安全概念宜從「國家」到「個人」之必要性。

 

Even though the concept of Human Security first emerged more than a decade ago, it never gained much attention in the field of security study. In the post-Cold War era, non-traditional security study somehow rectified the defect of traditional security study that focused simply on military affairs, and was not comprehensive enough to understand the crucial role ‘People’ played in security study. From authors’ view, the present comprehension of security study can no longer catch up with the mainstream development of international relations in the age of globalization. To exclude ‘People’ from discussing or to marginalize it is a definite miscalculation of what ‘security’ really is. Either traditional security, which pays main attention to territorial matters, or non-traditional security, which cares more about poverty, development, disease, its core and essential value of security is no doubt based on ‘People’. In fact, the concept of security is a spectrum that cannot be divided; also, the spectrum has considerable inter-links and overlaps. An effect to one dimension of security is likely to travel to all forms of security. The phenomenon of interdependency on economic dimension is also relevant to security studies. By a case study of the Colombia civil war, this article demonstrates that the study of human security can help resolve threats from both internal and external forces, respond to the challenges of globalization, and achieve true security. It manifests the necessity of the study of security from focusing on “state” to the “people”.

 

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