期刊內容 Issue content

美國貿易授權法時期FTA的簽訂策略
The United States Free Trade Agreement (FTA) strategy-Trade Promotion Authority Act
陳鴻鈞(Hung-Chun Chen)
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47卷4期(2008/12/01)

本文分析美國貿易授權法時期(2002~2007)FTA的簽訂策略。影響 美國簽訂FTA策略的因素大致可分為外在因素與國內因素兩類。外在因素包括了九一一恐怖攻擊事件、中國崛起、東亞經濟整合、歐盟東擴、WTO 談判受挫、FTA盛行,以及歐盟與中國在拉美的勢力逐漸擴張等因素。國內因素則是由於貿易授權法的通過,國會進一步賦予行政部門對外談判的權力與快速立法程序,使美國從過去強調多邊主義的政策,轉變為多邊主義與雙邊主義並行。美國採取競爭自由化的貿易政策,使用自由貿易協定(FTA)做為政策的工具。這個政策工具一方面可促成 WTO 談判成功,另一方面則能夠達成反恐與其他外交目標。我們發現,在貿易促進法案生效間,和美國簽訂 FTA 的國家較多,而且分佈在西半球、亞太地區與中東地區等地,這也反映出美國對簽訂 FTA 的積極態度與戰略考量有逐漸強化的趨勢。

 

This article analyzes the Free Trade Agreement (FTA) strategy adopted by the United States during the valid period of the Trade Promotion Authority Act (2002~2007). Because of the external factors, such as 911 terrorist attacks, rise of China, the economic integration of East Asia, EU’s expansion, the frustration of WTO negotiations, the fashion of FTA, the EU and China’s expanding influence toward Latin America, and other domestic factors such as the power of negotiation and the fast track procedure offered by the Congress to the Executives when the Trade Promotion Authority Act was passed, the United States has partly changed its free trade policy: from the emphasis of multilateralism to the combination of multilateralism and bilateralism. The United States adopts competitive liberalization trade strategy and uses free trade agreements (FTAs) as tools, on the one hand, to make the WTO negotiations successful; on the other hand, this policy also helps to reach the goals of anti-terrorism and other foreign policies. We found that the numbers of FTA that the US signed during this period were much more than the FTAs the US has before 2002. Furthermore, those FTAs are disturbed over the Western Hemisphere, Asia-Pacific, and Middle East. This result reflects a tendency that the United States is more active in FTA and strategic consideration.

 

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