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新區域間主義下的歐盟印太戰略: 以歐盟與東協「開路者」協定為例
The EU’s Indo-Pacific Strategy in New Interregionalism: The Case of EU-ASEAN Pathfinder Agreements
荊柏鈞(Bo-Jiun Jing) 謝笠天(Pasha L. Hsieh)
即將出版 下載檔案
61卷1期(2022/03/01)

隨著近年「印太」成為國際關係與外交研究的重要詞彙,歐盟於2021年4月首次提出「印太戰略」,並特別強調與東協在印太區域合作的重要性。事實上,歐盟自2010年代以來受到全球經濟重心東移、亞洲地緣政治競爭激烈等結構性因素影響,已加速與東協的「第三波區域間主義(Third Interregionalism)」發展;除與東協國家洽簽經濟協定,並於2020年底將原有與東協的對話夥伴關係升級為戰略夥伴關係。本文主張歐盟透過與東協國家洽簽經濟協定以增強其「印太戰略」的效力,而雙邊升級的關係不但強化東協在全球的經貿戰略地位,互動過程中所建立的法律架構亦充實區域間主義理論之內涵。本文以歐盟近年與新加坡和越南簽署的「開路者(pathfinder)」貿易及投資協定為例,探討歐盟對東協的經貿戰略布局與實務作法,以及「印太戰略」的思維。在傳統的貨品及服務貿易等範疇之外,本文亦分析歐盟新世代自由貿易協定的元素,包括人權與永續發展、地理標示,以及爭端解決機制等規範。整體而言,歐盟考量新越兩國處於不同經濟發展狀態,給予越南較多彈性。藉由聚焦歐盟與新越簽署的經濟協定以及和「印太戰略」的關係,本研究解釋歐盟如何在亞洲推動以歐洲規範與價值為核心的經濟協定,並勾勒出歐盟與東協新區域間主義的最新輪廓。

Indo-Pacific strategies have become salient in international relations and diplomatic studies. In April 2021, the European Union (EU) for the first time declared its own Indo-Pacific strategy and emphasized the importance of cooperation with the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). In fact, global systemic factors such as the shift of economic power to Asia and the intense geopolitical rivalry in the region have galvanized the evolution of the Third Interregionalism between the EU and ASEAN. Other than economic agreements, both blocs upgraded their Dialogue Partnership to the Strategic Partnership in 2020. This article argues that the EU’s economic agreements with ASEAN countries not only implement the Indo-Pacific strategy, but also enhance the global status of ASEAN, hence buttressing the development of interregionalism theories. By focusing on the EU’s pathfinder trade and investment agreements with Singapore and Vietnam, the article evaluates the EU’s pragmatic approach to ASEAN under the Indo-Pacific strategy. In addition to traditional areas of trade in goods and services, the article analyzes the key components of new-generation trade pacts such as human rights, sustainable development, geographical indications, and dispute settlement mechanisms. Give different development stages of Singapore and Vietnam, the EU’s free trade agreement (FTA) with Vietnam includes additional flexibilities. The nexus between these agreements and the EU’s Indo-Pacific strategy provides a new understanding of the EU’s normative efforts to promote European values in Asia in the context of EU-ASEAN interregionalism.  

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