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中日戰爭時期各方「華僑論述」分析
Analysis of Discourses on Overseas Chinese during the Second Sino-Japanese War
邵軒磊(Hsuan-Lei Shao)
即將出版 下載檔案
54卷3期(2015/09/01)

中日第二次戰爭(即對日抗戰,1937~1945 )時期,交戰各方為爭奪南洋華僑群眾支持,遂發展政治論述(discourse)。由於「國族」(nation)並非東亞固有觀念,因此華僑國族認同成為當時重要課題。本研究將以戰時各方之調查報告、政策文獻、外交檔案為核心,研究「國共汪日」四方之華僑政治論述基礎、主要政策與華僑群體的應對過程。研究發現:華僑社群原接受中國傳統思想,以各種親屬與文化關係維繫對中國認同,故國民政府在當時以各種團體為中介,實行「抗日救國」的國族主義論述;與此對立,日本帝國宣傳「東亞共榮」之階層秩序,以現代型主權國家認同試圖取代傳統認同。此外,還有汪政府以亞洲主義為主軸,主張使用「亞洲民族」之觀念; 延安政府主要跟隨國府之國族主義,但亦提出扶植華僑獨立與解放殖民地的左翼政治主張。綜上所述,鑑於戰時對華僑的政治論述之多元性,乃是觀察東亞近現代政治論述與華僑國族認同之良好參考點。

 

During the Second Sino-Japanese War, a.k.a. War of Resistance (1937~1945), both China and Japan attempted to gain support from overseas Chinese using their different political discourses. The concept of “nation” was not originated in East Asia but highly propagandized during this war period. This article analyzed and compared various discourses on overseas Chinese mobilization submitted by four actorsChiang(Choung- ching government ), Wang ( Nanking government ), Mao ( Yen-an government), and Empire Japan using documents, reports and diplomatic files at that time. This article found that overseas Chinese basically accepted the traditional Chinese thought and were connected by kinship to be an identical group. The Choung-ching government emphasized on nationalism in order to appeal overseas Chinese to “Defend Japan, Save Nation”. On the other hand, Japan presented “Greater East Asia” to overseas Chinese to seek their corporation. The Nanking government adopted the viewpoint similar to Japan while promoting Sun Yet Sen’s “Great Asianism,” but the discourse was not complete. Finally, Mao’s discourse followed those of the Choung- ching government, while encouraging anti-colonization and independence with a leftist perspective. In conclusion, this study on multiple discourses on overseas Chinese may provide a historical reference in East Asian political studies.

 

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