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泰、柬柏威夏寺爭端之探析:領土國族主義的政治
A Study of the Preah Vihear Temple Dispute between Thailand and Cambodia: The Politics of Territorial Nationalism
蕭文軒(Wen-Hsuan Hsiao)顧長永(Samuel C. Y. Ku)
即將出版 下載檔案
54卷4期(2015/12/01)

本文為尋求解釋泰國在柏威夏寺爭議中的動機及柬埔寨的回應,將領土衝突與國族認同及國內政治等面向作出連結,揭示在以絕對控制的邊界觀為基礎的現代國族國家體系中,領土的歷史變遷在國族主義建構過程所扮演的角色,及其為政治人物留下可操作的空間。為達政治目的,政治菁英可選擇製造或操縱國族認同;同時,利用歷史的形塑或詮釋作為策略武器,引導國內觀眾朝向其所欲的結果,來為政權產生並提高政治正當性。不過,從實存的歷史發展過程來看,這種舉動經常會伴隨難以預料的後果。泰、柬柏威夏寺的主權爭端正清楚的描繪出領土認知、歷史詮釋及國族主義之間的連動性,及其互動之後所產生的結果。本文認為,由於泰、柬的領土爭端在本質上是一種國族主義的政治,所以,即使透過國際法界定出泰、柬兩國實質的領土邊界,但是,由於在建構國族主義的過程中,某些領土或文化遺產被塑造成國族認同的重要象徵,導致人民懷有「領土喪失」的情緒,容易遭受政治菁英的挑動。正是這種特性導致泰、柬雙方在解決領土爭端時經常陷入兩難的困境。

 

This article explores the linkage among territory, nationalism and domestic politics through a case study of the Preah Vihear Temple dispute between Thailand and Cambodia. In the process of transformation from traditional kingdoms to modern nation-states, territorial changes are very important for nationalism and nation-building. They can provide political elites with chances to manipulate and secure self interest. To fan the flames of nationalism, political leaders or elites often re-construct and re-write national history as strategic weapons to align the public according to their objectives, promoting political legitimacy and winning public supports. However, consequences are always unexpected. The territorial dispute of the Preah Vihear Temple clearly expresses a dynamic relationship among territorial imaginaries, historical interpretations, and nationalism. In summary, territorial disputes are never legal questions but political problems of great complexity.

 

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