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美國小布希總統時期的文武關係(2001-2006)
US Civil-Military Relations in the Presidential Tenure of George W. Bush (2001-2006)
洪陸訓(Lu-Hsun Hung)
即將出版 下載檔案
56卷3期(2017/09/01)

本文探討美國小布希總統任內的文武關係。置重點於文人統制與軍人專業倫理的理念與實踐。內容重點包括:美國文武關係理論,文人主導的戰爭和軍事轉型,文人領導風格,文、武領導者之間的衝突,退役將領對文人領導者的批評,以及文武關係理論的檢視。文、武之間的衝突,主要源自 911 攻擊事件後,美國在阿富汗和伊拉克發動的反恐戰爭過程中,雙方在用兵計畫與實施上的爭執,以及文人國防部長倫斯斐領導風格所導致軍事將領的反彈。這一過程,在美國文武關係演變上所顯示的意涵在於:一、文武關係的規範理論和文人統制理念再度受到挑戰;二、軍人政治化傾向持續發展,成為美國文人統制的隱憂;三、美國文武關係在戰時的文人統制往往轉趨強勢,在戰時和轉型壓力下易導致文武衝突;四、文人統制依然是美國文武關係發展過程中所堅持的信念和傳統,雖然時有緊張與衝突,但是,就整體而言,美國文武關係的互動,顯示傾向一種動態的平衡。

 

This study discussed the civil-military relations in the United States during George W. Bush’s presidency(2001-2006)and focused on civilian control, notions and fulfillment of military professionalism. The key points included American civil-military relations theories, wars and military transformations led by civilians, civilian leadership styles, conflicts between the civilian and military top rankings, criticisms on civilian leaderships by retired generals, and reviews of civil-military relations theories. Civilian and military conflicts originated primarily from disagreements and arguments regarding military operation planning and executions in the Afghan and Iraqi wars after 911, and from dissatisfactions with Donald Rumsfeld’s(then Secretary of Defense)leadership style from the generals. The changes in civil-military relations has several implications:(1)The norm theory of civil-military relations and the notions of civilian control were challenged again;(2)The armed forces became “partisan” and subjected to increasing political influence;(3)Civilian control often overpowers the military during war time, resulting in increased pressure of transformation; and(4) Civilian control remains the central belief and tradition of American civil- military relations. Tension and conflicts may occur; however, American civil-military relations generally resemble a dynamic balance.

 

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